Author:
Jan Scholten
Book:
Type:
Chapter:
3-655.40.00

Rutales
Botany: trees, shrubs, woody; flowers often imperfect, intrastaminal disk, nectar disk; leaves alternate, odd-pinnately compound; ovary superior, connate.
Content: silica; ethereal oils.

Taxonomy
In the Apg3 classification Sapindales is one of the Orders of the Subclass Malvidae. Sapindales includes 6 big Families and 3 small ones. Sapindales has been recognised long as an Order with a stabile group of families in general.
In the first version of the Plant theory it is placed in Phase 4. Now Sapindales has been split in Rutales in Phase 4 and Sapindales in Phase 5.
Sapindales retains the families Sapindaceae, Simaroubaceae and Meliaceae.
Rutales holds the families Rutaceae, Anacardiaceae and Burseraceae. Rutaceae is split in the Subfamilies Cneoroideae, Rutaceae is split in the Subfamilies Toddalioideae, Aurantioideae and Rutoideae.
Anacardiaceae split in the Subfamilies Spondoideae and Rhusoideae.

Subphases
1. Cneoroideae, Subfamily of Rutaceae: they start afresh every time to show their uniqueness.
2. Toddalioideae, Subfamily of Rutaceae they feel not seen and of minor position in society.
3. Burseraceae: they feel they have to please and adapt in society.
4. Rutoideae, Subfamily of Rutaceae: the rules of society and culture are strong and too rigid.
5. Galipeoideae, Subfamily of Rutaceae: they feel limited by society, want to show their uniqueness more.
6. Spondioideae Subfamily of Anacardiaceae, subfamily : they feel the victim of the society, the rigidity of it.
7. Rhosoideae, Subfamily of Anacardiaceae: they feel an outcast because they do not accept the rules of society.

Kirkiaceae: 2 genera: Kirkia Pleikirkia; 6 six species; East Africa, Madagascar; previously in Simaroubaceae; Kirkia is a close relative of Burseraceae and Anacardiaceae and can probably be included with one of them.