Author:
Jan Scholten
Book:
Type:
Chapter:
3-500.00.00

Names: Gymnosperms; Pinophyta.
Botany: 15 Families; 80 Genera; most species are trees. The wood of the Gymnospermae is weaker than that of Angiospermae, it has a different chemical structure. That makes the wood less hard and strong, more breakable and fragile.

Taxonomy
Gymnospermae consist of 4 Orders in the Apg3 classification: Cycadales, Ginkgoales, Gnetales and Pinales. It is a quite small group with only 15 Families and 80 Genera.
In the Plant theory Gymnospermae is split into 3 Classes: Gentidae, Cycadidae and Pinidae.
Gymnospermae are difficult to establish and define. Few members are known well in homeopathy. Many species have become extinct. In a way Gymnospermae are bit fossil-like, survivors from the time of the dinosaurs.

Series
1. Hydrogen series: absent, probably extinct.
2. Carbon series: absent, probably extinct.
3. Silicon series: Gnetidae.
4. Iron series: Cycadidae.
5. Silver series: Pinidae.