Jan Scholten

Botany: 204 genera; 2300 species; phloem stratified with fibrous and soft layers; hairs stellate; sepals connate; leaves with malvoid teeth; stamens numerous, develop centrifugally from a few bundles.

The order of the Malvales has been established a long time. But the exact placement has been problematic. It was for long thought to be connected with the Rosales. Malvales has 3 subclades: 2 early diverging families Neuradaceae and Thymelaeaceae, an extended Malvaceae and a clade with Dipterocarpaceae and Cistaceae.
In the Plant theory the Order of the Malvales is split into the above subclades. The extended Malvaceae is raised to the level of an Order, Malvales and the subfamilies are treated as families. The other suborder, that of Dipterocarpaceae and Cistaceae, is treated as Cistales. Cistales is placed in Phase 5 of the Malvidae. The Families Neuradaceae and Thymelaeaceae are included in Huerteales, in Phase 2 of the Malvidae.

1. Bixaceae.
2. Sphaerosepalaceae.
3. Cistaceae.
4. Sarcolaenaceae.
5. Dipterocarpaceae.
6. Muntingiaceae
7. Cytinaceae.