Botany: 4 genera: Anisophyllea, Combretocarpus, Poga, Polygonanthus; pantropical; shrubs; wet, tropical forests, swamps; America, Africa, Asia; leaves palmately veined leaves, leathery, entire margins, often asymmetrical at the base, minute stipules, alternate, spiral, distichous, or four-ranked; small flowers in axillary racemes or panicles; inferior, 3 to 4-locular ovary develops into a drupe or a samara; usually one seed.
Takhtajan classified Anisophylleaceae in its own order Anisophylleales. Anisophylleaceae have similarities in flower morphology with the genus Ceratopetalum of Cunoniaceae. Several wood features of Anisophylleaceae are more primitive than other families in Cucurbitales. Anisophylleaceae is the first diverging lineage of the Cucurbitales.
In the Plant theory Anisophylleaceae is placed in Subphase 1.